Tuesday, 23 April 2013

Abstract of new written book 'Ground Water Investigation'



            After graduation in Agriculture science shri Bipin Vyas joined in Gujarat Agriculture Department . He has worked in soil science faculties like soil conservation, soil testing laboratory and soil survey organization. In 1968 he was deputed for training in minor irrigation and water management. Where he learned about the ground water and it’s classification, development of ground water, construction of well and tube wells etc. During his training he created interest in ground water investigation . But there was no source to know about.
            During that time he got a chance to meet Shri Sursinhji Jadeja Ex. Director of Agriculture, old Navanagar state. Shri Jadeja was specially deputed in British India military, as a ‘Dowser’ to find out ground water sources. He had taken systematic training for ‘Dowsing’ technique. He was using copper angle rods. He taught shri Vyas systematically. How to hold angle rods, how to measure intensity of water current, creation of vibration in left hand and right hand, measurement of distance between vibration starts at point and vibration ends, (where1800  creates between two angle rods) , how to fix a pin point for  digging well/bore well etc. Shri Jadeja bless him to be a good dowser. Also gave him advice to find out the scientific reason for creation of vibration and deflating copper angle rods.
             Shri Vyas started ground water investigation using copper angle rods in 1969. Within 5 years, he had given sites foe wells more than 500. Out of them, about 45 to 50 % carried out successful. He was visiting regularly at his given sites for open well during digging work. He himself lowered in to the well and studied soil strata and water saturation zones. He interpreted the angle rod’s movement with the actual soil and water strata observed. With this experience, within further five years, he became successful in result more and more. 
           In the year 1975, he was deputed by the Govt. for long term training in soil survey ( soil formation related to geology). And posted in soil survey organization. He worked in soil survey for 15 years in field. During this field work job, he studied geology, geological structures related to ground water occurrence. With this experience he learned to presume the underground situation of dykes, barriers and strikes. He find out the method of locate hidden    underground dykes, barriers and slope direction of underground rocks. This was his plus point to search maximum ground water. By this experience he reached to 70 to 75 % in success rate.
          In the year 1988, he was deputed in Water And Land Management Institute (WALMI) as an Assitt. Director Ag. (Soil & water). Where he had taken trainings regarding water management, hydrology, ground water hydrometry, and other subjects related to soil science. Which is supported him in ground water investigation work. In the year 1989, he has taken a training in Vertical Electro Sounding survey using resistivity meter at N.R.D.C. Hyderabad.
             Shri Vyas started VES survey along with ‘Dowsing’( copper angle rods). First he find out pin point for a new well by copper angle rod method  then, at the same point he use to undertake vertical electro sounding to know more information about the underground soil formation and water saturation zones and water saturation %. During his 45 years’ carrier, he has under taken ground water survey more than 5000 places and secured about 80 to 85 % success. With the vast experience in ground water investigation, he wrote this book for the guidance for new generation.


I have written this book in two parts:
The traditional technique of ground water investigation by copper angle rods method which is known as “DOWSING”.
          This technique is hundreds years old. It is known as ‘ DOWSING’ . This technique gradually became popular. This result oriented technique has attracted many people to use it, as it doesn’t require any special skills. In this technique, a person holds two copper rods (angle rods) in each hand, parallel to each other, and walks steadily on the ground. As a person walks, the rods develops vibrations near the place where the ground water is accumulated , and copper rods starts deflecting from each other. Rods make an angle of 1800   where water is accumulated under the ground. Digging a well or bore-well on that place, yields water. (Or this place is good to dig a well or a bore-well to get under ground water)This is a traditional technique for ground water investigation. This is well known worldwide. What is scientific reason behind the copper rods deflection to 180 0 angle only where the place water is accumulated under the ground .
Following are the 3 parameters behind this science.
1. Water (having 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen)
2. Soil/Earth (ground water occurs under the soil/earth)
3. Human body (water currents reaches to the end of copper wire through human body)
        Water and Earth are the elements, out of the basic universal five elements (Pancha mahabhut tatwa). Whereas human body is an element made of complete five mahabhut tatwa. All these three factors (water, earth and human body) are related to the science of electro-magnetic streams.                                                                                          
      Water is a molecule of 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen ions. Each ion is bounded with arrangement of Electrode, Proton and neutron. During formation of water molecule, two proton of hydrogen ion creates dipole, resulting in magnetic radiation, known as water currents. This currents containing only positive  (+ve) polarity.                                                                     
    Earth is a big magnate, which has north and south poles. Hence it is highly conductive. Therefore magnetic currents gently passes through the soil. Water accumulates in the fractured and weathered rocks, aquifers, sand and gravel deposition in confined and semi-confined conditions in the earth. During occurrence in this condition water generate magnetic currents in the sub-surface of the earth. This water current comes out   in the atmosphere near the surface of the earth. This water current cannot visualize but we can feel it. Early in the morning during winter season, when we pass near by the water current, on the road or the field, we can feel some worm air touches our body in the particular place, where the water currents comes out from the earth. And that particular place ground water meets definitely.
       Considering the fact that human body is a good conductor of electricity, water currents comes out from the earth, enters in the copper rods through our body . As we enter in the magnetic field of the ground water on the surface, with holding two cupper rods in each hand, parallel to each other, water currents enters in our body through right and left legs and passes through left and right shoulders and reaches to the both arms and to the end of the both holed copper angle rod’s end. Due to equal polarity occurs in the both angle rods, vibration starts and deflect from each other and make 1800 angle where water accumulate under the ground.                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
        Water currents caught in the angle rods deflects in the various angles. Sometimes gives 900,450or, any angle. It indicates the water current does not uniform in intensity due to underground geological disturbance. Therefore consideration of radius of influence of current on the surface should be in our mind. Based on my vast experience  and the results, I have described how to locate the correct pin point from the angle rods indicates water. This part of  book is inspired by the facts in Bhagwat Geeta, atom science, human electricity, geology, and long with  years of my research and field work in ground water investigation.  This method is perfect to locate pin-point for digging a well or bore-well. It indicates the potentiality of ground water only. What is the strata  of   the soil, what depth water can secure, how much saturation of water is in the water bearing zones, How many water saturation zones are under the ground, what is the quality of ground water etc. information’s can not be available to know by this “Dowsing” method. So to make perfect investigation, If Vertical Electro Sounding survey is  carried out along with copper angle rods method, we can secure 80 to 85 % success in the achievement of water. I have given Vertical Electro Sounding technique in second part of this book.

Vertical Electro Sounding Technique   
 All the method of exploration geophysics is based on some physical properties. Due to the difference in lithological and chemical composition, different rock types and ore deposits have different physical properties. It is the electrical resistivity of its reciprocal electrical conductivity. That is used as the physical property in electrical methods. This physical property has most wide variation.  The highest among rock is granite that is 103 to 105 ohms/m and the lowest for clay that is 1 to 103 ohms/m. Most of the rock formation conduct electricity because of mineralized water in pores and fissures, otherwise dry rocks is highly resistant. So that resistivity of a geological formation may be considered as a function of porosity, saturation of water and water salinity.
       The Apparent Resistance (Pa) of water decreases with increasing salt content. Which depends upon the geometry and the App. Resistance (Pa) of the elements constituting the given geological medium. For homogenous formation, the electrical ‘Pa’ measured represents the true App. Resistance (Pa). It is expressed in ohms/m which is recognized as a standard unit. The resistivity of the sub-surface formations is generally measured with four electrodes. Two for current  and the other two for potential measurements.
        The instrument  used for the resistivity survey is a power source D.C.(direct current) or low frequency A.C. meter to measure  current potential. For D.C. measurements non-polarizing electrodes (copper rod in saturated CuSo4 Solution) are used for potential measurement to eliminate contract potentials. Self potentials created due to fluid streaming, varying electrolytic concentration in groundwater, geochemical actions and telluric fields are bucked off by S.P.(strait potential) compensating system. Various electrode configurations are used as per field convenience.
        Vertical Electro Sounding is useful to investigate the nature of subsurface formation by studying the variation in their electrical properties. This method is much useful in ground water investigation. The method is easy to operate and low cost. It is also important to distinguish between the saline and fresh water zones. The data of potential difference is collected by resistivity meter. Which are plotted on a simple graph paper and find out the sounding curves. The interpretation of the sounding curve by curve matching technique is important factor in this survey technique. Also the knowledge of local geology,  topography, natural drainage line, fixing of pin point for a new well/bore etc. should be kept in our mind before sounds are taken. This method is based on  ohms low. Resistivity of the earth is measured by a resistivity meter.
          I have written this book according to my knowledge of geology, topography, soil science, geography and vast (45 years) experience in ground water investigation by copper angle rods (Dowsing) method and 80 to 85 % success in the investigation work. I use to under take the sounding survey since last 25 years along with the pin point fixing by copper angle rods.  I have explained my personal interpretations of sounding curves along with the values of currents passes in the earth and development of resistance values. I have given more than 50 black & white line figures and about 50 color photographs. I have given  10 case studies of electro soundings of different area and geology. Also I have given field graphs (sounding graphs) of the case studies with interpretation for  guidance to the readers.                                                                        

Thursday, 11 April 2013

Ground Water Investigation - I am here to share my Experience and Knowledge...

With my 45+ years of experience in ground water investigation and harvesting, I have always wanted to share this knowledge and my learnings with the world.
I hope to share and increase my knowledge on this subject through this blog...